Gathering of the Jews
and the Lost Tribes of Israel
Pray for the
peace of Jerusalem: they shall prosper that love thee. Psalms 122:6
The Lord made a
covenant with Abraham as follows:
have a great posterity. He would have many
descendents (Genesis 15:5 and 17:2).
Abraham would be
a father of many nations (Genesis 17:4).
Kings would come
from Abraham's seed or posterity (Genesis 17:6). King David
and Jesus Christ himself were descendents of Abraham.
Abraham and his
posterity received the land of Canaan (Genesis 17:8).
The Lord promised
Abraham that through his seed all the families of the Earth would be
blessed. (Genesis 22:17-18 & Acts 3:25).
In addition, Abraham
paid tithing to Melchizedek who was the King of Salem (Genesis
14:18-20). Melchizedek blessed Abraham and conferred the
priesthood upon him (Hebrews 7:1-4).
Also refer to
(Doctrine & Covenants 84:6-18).
Note that Jesus Christ,
who lived two thousand years after Abraham, was called of God an high
priest after the order of Melchizedek (Hebrews 5:10).
Abraham gave the
blessings of the birthright and the priesthood to his son
Isaac. The covenant that God made with Abraham continued
through Isaac (Genesis 17:15-19 & 21).
Isaac had two sons,
Esau and Jacob. These sons were twins, but Esau was born
first. So Esau should have received the birthright.
But Esau sold his birthright for a bowl of pottage (Genesis 25:29-24).
Isaac instead gave the
blessings of the birthright, the priesthood, and the covenant of
Abraham to Jacob (Genesis 27 & Genesis 28:3-4).
had twelve sons: (Genesis Chapters 29 through 35).
God changed Jacob's
name to Israel (Genesis 32:28). Jacob's sons thus became the
heads of the Twelve tribes of Israel. Furthermore, Joseph
had two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Jacob adopted these sons,
so Ephraim and Manasseh also became heads of tribes. (Genesis
The inclusion of
Ephraim and Manasseh brought the total number of tribes to thirteen,
but the Levites were dispersed among the other tribes to perform
Jacob, or Israel, gave
each of these sons a special blessing.
and Jews, we need to study these blessings so that we can
understand God's ongoing plan for the human family.
The birthright should
have gone to Reuben because he was the oldest son. Reuben did
not receive the birthright, however, because he had sinned (Genesis
35:22). Jacob instead gave the birthright to Joseph (1
Chronicles 5:1-2). Nevertheless, each son received the
blessings of the covenant of Abraham.
Joseph's wife was
Asenath (Genesis 41:45).
Joseph received many
wonderful blessings as recorded in Genesis 49:
Joseph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well; whose
branches run over the wall:
 The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot
at him, and hated him:
 But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of
his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob;
(from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel:)
 Even by the God of thy father, who shall help
thee; and by the Almighty, who shall bless thee with blessings of
heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the
breasts, and of the womb:
 The blessings of thy father have prevailed
above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the
everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the
crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren.
Joseph was given
further blessings as recorded in Deuteronomy 33:13-17.
Jacob also gave blessings to Ephraim and Manasseh (Genesis
48:14-22). Ephraim received the birthright, but both
received great blessings.
literally means "doubly fruitful."
Judah was given the
blessing of the law and kings (Genesis 49:10). Again, King
David and Jesus Christ himself were both from the tribe of Judah.
Jesus Christ is the "Lion of Judah" and the "Root of David"
(Revelations 5:5). He is the "Son of David" (Matthew 1:1). He is also
the "Stem of Jesse" (Isaiah 11:1, Doctrine and Covenants 113:1-6).
Jesse was David's father.
Jacob and his sons
moved from Canaan to Egypt because there was a famine (Genesis 46).
The descendents of
Jacob, or children of Israel, became slaves in Egypt (Exodus
1). Their captivity lasted 400 years (Acts 7:6).
Moses was from the
tribe of Levi (Exodus 2:1-10).
Moses received the
priesthood authority from his father-in-law Jethro (Doctrine
& Covenants 84:6-18). Jethro was the priest of Midian
(Exodus 3:1). Jethro is also referred to as Reuel.
Midian was also the
name of one of Abraham's sons. Jethro was a descendant of Abraham
though Midian. Midian's mother was Keturah, who became Abraham's wife
after Sarah died (Genesis 25:1-1).
God commanded Moses to
lead the children of Israel out of Egypt.
According to Rabbinical
teachings, the children of Israel were redeemed from Egypt because of
four meritorious acts:
1. They kept their
2. They retained their Hebrew language.
3. They did not reveal their secrets - (They would leave with many of
Egypt's possessions, Exodus 3:21-22).
4. They did not
Moses was not allowed
to cross into the Promised Land, however, because he disobeyed the
Lord. The Lord had commanded Moses to speak unto a rock at Meribah
before the children of Israel so that the rock would bring forth water.
Instead, Moses became angry at the people, and he smote the rock twice
with his rod. The rock nevertheless sent forth water, but Moses had
shown unbelief and had failed to sanctify the Lord before the people
claim that the rock symbolized Jesus Christ who is the "Rock of our
Salvation" (Psalms 89:26 and 1 Corinthians 10:4).
Moses gave blessings to
each of the tribes of Israel, Deuteronomy 33.
After many years,
Joshua led the children of Israel into Canaan, which is the land of
Israel. Each tribe received a portion of land.
Joshua was from the tribe of Ephraim (Numbers 13:8
Map of the lands given
to the Twelve Tribes.
KINGDOM OF ISRAEL
A series of judges
ruled over Israel for a period of about four hundred and fifty years,
after they arrived in the land. (Acts 13:20).
Saul, who was from the
tribe of Benjamin, became the first king. He was anointed by
the prophet Samuel.
David, the son of
Jesse, became the next King of Israel. He was
followed by his son Solomon, and then by Rehoboam.
After the death of King
Solomon, the nation of
Israel divided in to the northen and southern kingdoms.
Rehoboam raised the taxes, which caused the northern tribes to rebel
Ephraim was the head
tribe of the northern kingdom, which consisted of ten tribes.
The northern kingdom's capital city was Samaria.
Judah was the main
tribe of the southern kingdom. The tribe of Benjamin also
settled in the southern kingdom.
The people of
Israel were wicked. They worshipped the pagan idols Baal and
Ashtaroth (Judges 2:13, Hosea 2:8). They even sacrificed their
children as burnt offerings to Baal (Jeremiah
The prophets Elijah,
Elisha, Amos, Micah, and Hosea called the northern tribes to
Both the northern
tribes of Israel and the southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin
had to face the consequences of sin. The sins included pride, idolatry,
and whoredoms. The Lord withdrew himself from them (Hosea 5:5-7).
The nation of Assyria, led
first by Shalmaneser V and then by Sargon II, began carrying away the
northern tribes of Israel in 722 to 721 B.C. (2
Nebuchadnezzar invaded Judaea, captured Jerusalem, and
destroyed its temple. He carried away the tribe of Judah to Babylon
sometime between 588 to 586 B.C. (2 Kings 24 ). (See also
This and other
dispersions of the Jews outside of Israel is called the Diaspora.
The Jews returned to
Jerusalem after a 70 year captivity.
And this whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and
these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.
For thus saith the LORD, That after seventy years be accomplished at
Babylon I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in
causing you to return to this place.
The Jews remained in
Jerusalem until they were dispersed by the Roman legions. The Romans
defeated the Jews over a series of wars:
1. Jewish-Roman war or
Great Revolt, 66 to 73 A.D.
2. Kitos war,115 to 117
3. Bar Kokhba's Revolt, 132-135 A.D.
4. War against Gallus, 351-352 A.D.
Titus' legions besieged
and destroyed Jerusalem and burned Herod's Temple in 70 A.D. Many of the Jews were killed during the Great
Revolt. The surviors were sent to work as slaves throughout the Roman
The Kitos war took
place over a vast region including Cyprus, Libya, Egypt, Mesopotamia,
Judea and Syria. The name Kitos comes from the Mauretanian Roman
general Lusius Quietus who ruthlessly suppressed a Jewish revolt in
Revolt was led by Simon Bar Kokhba, who was believed by some to be the
Jewish Messiah. A sovereign Jewish state was restored for two and a
half years, until the Roman legions defeated the Jews. The Roman
Emperor Hadrian attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the
cause of continuous rebellions. He prohibited the Torah law, the Jewish
calendar and executed Jewish sages.
Patricius led the Jews
into battle against the Romans. The Roman General Ursicinus defeated
Heraclius, 613-617 A.D.
Byzantine empire controlled Jerusalem during this period. Heraclius was
the Emperor of Byzantine.
The Jews of Palestine
joined Persia in a revolt against Emperor Heraclius in order to
liberate Jerusalem and to to control it autonomously. The Jews achieved
their goal to some degree. Ultimately, Emperor Heraclius massacred and
dispersed the Jews of Jerusalem.
Byzantine Empire lost control of the territory of Palaestina to the
Arabs in 638 A.D.
Jesus foretold the
destruction of Jerusalem and the dispersion of the Jews which occurred
over the series of wars.
For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a
trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every
 And shall lay thee even with the ground, and
thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone
upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.
And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away
captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the
Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.
Gathering of Israel
And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee,
the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou
shalt call them to mind among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God
hath driven thee,
 And shalt return unto the LORD thy God, and
shalt obey his voice according to all that I command thee this day,
thou and thy children, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul;
 That then the LORD thy God will turn thy
captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather
thee from all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee.
 If any of thine be driven out unto the outmost
parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and
from thence will he fetch thee:
 And the LORD thy God will bring thee into the
land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and he
will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers.
 And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine
heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all
thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.
 And the LORD thy God will put all these curses
upon thine enemies, and on them that hate thee, which persecuted thee.
 And thou shalt return and obey the voice of the
LORD, and do all his commandments which I command thee this day.
 And the LORD thy God will make thee plenteous in
every work of thine hand, in the fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of
thy cattle, and in the fruit of thy land, for good: for the LORD will
again rejoice over thee for good, as he rejoiced over thy fathers:
But if ye turn unto me, and keep my commandments, and do them; though
there were of you cast out unto the uttermost part of the heaven, yet
will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that
I have chosen to set my name there.
And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand
again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall
be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush,
and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands
of the sea.
 And he shall set up an ensign for the nations,
and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the
dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth.
 The envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the
adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah,
and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
 But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the
Philistines toward the west; they shall spoil them of the east
together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the
children of Ammon shall obey them.
 And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue
of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand
over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men
go over dryshod.
 And there shall be an highway for the remnant
of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria; like as it was to
Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt.
Fear not: for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed from the east, and
gather thee from the west;
 I will say to the north, Give up; and to the
south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the
ends of the earth;
 Even every one that is called by my name: for I
have created him for my glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him.
But, The LORD liveth, that brought up the children of Israel from the
land of the north, and from all the lands whither he had driven them:
and I will bring them again into their land that I gave unto their
And ye shall know that I am the LORD, when I shall bring you into the
land of Israel, into the country for the which I lifted up mine hand to
give it to your fathers.
And I will bring again the captivity of my people of Israel, and they
shall build the waste cities, and inhabit them; and they shall plant
vineyards, and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens,
and eat the fruit of them.
 And I will plant them upon their land, and they
shall no more be pulled up out of their land which I have given them,
saith the LORD thy God.
Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell
in the midst of thee, saith the LORD.
 And many nations shall be joined to the LORD in
that day, and shall be my people: and I will dwell in the midst of
thee, and thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto thee.
 And the LORD shall inherit Judah his portion in
the holy land, and shall choose Jerusalem again.
at the dedication of the temple at Kirtland, Ohio, March 27, 1836. HC
2: 420–426. According to the Prophet Joseph Smith's written statement,
this prayer was given to him by revelation.
61 But thou knowest
that thou hast a great love for the children of Jacob, who have been
scattered upon the mountains for a long time, in a cloudy and dark day.
62 We therefore ask
thee to have mercy upon the children of Jacob, that Jerusalem, from
this hour, may begin to be redeemed;
63 And the yoke of
bondage may begin to be broken off from the house of David;
64 And the children
of Judah may begin to return to the lands which thou didst give to
Abraham, their father.
manifested to Joseph Smith the Prophet and Oliver Cowdery in the temple
at Kirtland, Ohio, April 3, 1836. HC 2: 435–436. The occasion was that
of a Sabbath day meeting. The Prophet prefaces his record of the
manifestations with these words: “In the afternoon, I assisted the
other Presidents in distributing the Lord’s Supper to the Church,
receiving it from the Twelve, whose privilege it was to officiate at
the sacred desk this day. After having performed this service to my
brethren, I retired to the pulpit, the veils being dropped, and bowed
myself, with Oliver Cowdery, in solemn and silent prayer. After rising
from prayer, the following vision was opened to both of us.”
11 After this vision
closed, the heavens were again opened unto us; and Moses appeared
before us, and committed unto us the keys of the gathering of Israel
from the four parts of the earth, and the leading of the ten tribes
from the land of the north.
1 Nephi 19
Nevertheless, when that day cometh, saith the prophet, that they no
more turn aside their hearts against the Holy One of Israel, then will
he remember the covenants which he made to their fathers.
Yea, then will he remember the isles of the sea; yea, and all the
people who are of the house of Israel, will I gather in, saith the
Lord, according to the words of the prophet Zenos, from the four
quarters of the earth.
1 Nephi 22
the Lord God will proceed to make bare his arm in the eyes of all the
nations, in bringing about his covenants and his gospel unto those who
are of the house of Israel.
 Wherefore, he will
bring them again out of captivity, and they shall be gathered together
to the lands of their inheritance; and they shall be brought out of
obscurity and out of darkness; and they shall know that the Lord is
their Savior and their Redeemer, the Mighty One of Israel.
And now behold, I say unto you that when the Lord shall see fit, in his
wisdom, that these sayings shall come unto the Gentiles according to
his word, then ye may know that the covenant which the Father hath made
with the children of Israel, concerning their restoration to the lands
of their inheritance, is already beginning to be fulfilled.
And ye may know that the words of the Lord, which have been spoken by
the holy prophets, shall all be fulfilled; and ye need not say that the
Lord delays his coming unto the children of Israel.
And ye need not imagine in your hearts that the words which have been
spoken are vain, for behold, the Lord will remember his covenant which
he hath made unto his people of the house of Israel.
And when ye shall see these sayings coming forth among you, then ye
need not any longer spurn at the doings of the Lord, for the sword of
his justice is in his right hand; and behold, at that day, if ye shall
spurn at his doings he will cause that it shall soon overtake you.
Wo unto him that spurneth at the doings of the Lord; yea, wo unto him
that shall deny the Christ and his works!
Yea, wo unto him that shall deny the revelations of the Lord, and that
shall say the Lord no longer worketh by revelation, or by prophecy, or
by gifts, or by tongues, or by healings, or by the power of the Holy
Yea, and wo unto him that shall say at that day, to get gain, that
there can be no miracle wrought by Jesus Christ; for he that doeth this
shall become like unto the son of perdition, for whom there was no
mercy, according to the word of Christ!
Yea, and ye need not any longer hiss, nor spurn, nor make game of the
Jews, nor any of the remnant of the house of Israel; for behold, the
Lord remembereth his covenant unto them, and he will do unto them
according to that which he hath sworn.
Therefore ye need not suppose that ye can turn the right hand of the
Lord unto the left, that he may not execute judgment unto the
fulfilling of the covenant which he hath made unto the house of Israel.
3 Nephi 29
And then also cometh
the Jerusalem of old; and the inhabitants thereof, blessed are they,
for they have been washed in the blood of the Lamb; and they are they
who were scattered and gathered in from the four quarters of the earth,
and from the north countries, and are partakers of the fulfilling of
the covenant which God made with their father, Abraham.
The Spanish Expulsion,
Decree was issued on March 31, 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs
of Spain, Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, following the
final triumph over the Moors after the fall of Granada. The decree
ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Spain and its territories and
possessions by July 31, 1492.
Hundreds of thousands
of Jews were thus expelled from Spain in1492. Tens of thousands of
refugees died while trying to reach safety.
The Spanish Jews who
ended up in Turkey, North Africa, Italy, and elsewhere throughout
Europe and the Arab world, were known as Sephardim — Sefarad being the
Hebrew name for Spain.
Some Jews remained in
Spain and converted to Christianity either voluntarily or by coersion.
They became "New Christians," "Conversos" or "Marranos." Nevertheless,
the Spanish Inquisition persecuted the New Christians and drove them
out of Spain.
Torquemada (1420-1498) was the leader of the Inquisition. He ordered
the burning of Talumds, which are Jewish books of laws, ethics and
The year 1881 was a milestone
in the Zionist movement, as ideas supporting Jewish statehood became
more widespread. The Chovevei Tzion (Lovers of Zion) movement,
stressing a return to Zion, became increasingly popular.
Jewish refugees fled
persecution in Russia and immigrated to the Holy Land from 1882 to 1903.
(1860-1904) published his book Der Judenstaat
(German, The Jewish State) in 1896.
Herzl was motivated by the Dreyfus Affair, a notorious anti-Semitic
incident in France in which a French Jewish army captain was falsely
convicted of spying for Germany.
Herzl convened the
First Zionist Congress and proclaimed the right of the Jewish people to
national rebirth in its own country. This Congress was held in Basel,
Turks, Arab Revolt, T.E. Lawrence, General Allenby
Ottoman Turks conquered Palestine in 1516, and the country was
incorporated in the dominions of the Ottoman Empire. Local governors
were appointed from Constantinople.
Sherif Hussein (1852-1931), as the head of the Arab nationalists, entered
into an alliance with the United Kingdom and France against the
Ottomans around June 8, 1916.
(1888-1935) convinced the Arab leaders Faisal and Abdullah to
co-ordinate their actions in support of British strategy.
General Sir Edmund Allenby (1861-1936) led the Egyptian Expeditionary
Force in the conquest of the Land of Israel and Syria in 1917 and 1918.
officially entered Jerusalem on December 11, 1917.
The Arab cavalry gained
in strength in 1918. They were able to provide the British army with
intelligence on Ottoman army positions. They also harassed Ottoman
supply columns, attacked small garrisons, and destroyed railroad tracks.
Secretary Arthur James Balfour (1848-1930) wrote the following letter
in 1917. Note that Balfour had previously served as Prime Minister of
the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.
(1868-1937) was a British banker and zoologist from the international
Rothschild financial dynasty.
November 2nd, 1917.
Dear Lord Rothschild,
I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's
Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist
aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:
"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in
Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their
best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being
clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the
civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in
Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any
I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the
knowledge of the Zionist Federation.
Arthur James Balfour
the Night of Broken Glass
stormtroopers ransacked Jewish homes, shops and synagogues in numerous
German cities and in Vienna on November 9-10, 1938.
were killed. Around 30,000 Jewish men were taken to concentration camps.
SS Saint Louis
SS Saint Louis was a German ocean liner. Over 950 Jewish
refugees sailed out of Hamburg on this ship in the summer of 1939. The Jews were seeking asylum from Nazi
persecution just before World War II.
Initially, the refugees
tried to enter Havana, Cuba. Each passenger carried a visa which was
valid for temporary entrance to Cuba. Cuban President Federico Laredo
Bru (1875-1946), however, declared the visas invalid and refused entry
to the passengers.
The ship next sailed
toward Florida. Secretary of State Cordell Hull (1871-1955) vehemtly
opposed granting asylum to the refugees. President Franklin D.
Roosevelt (1882-1945) issued an order to deny entry to the refugees on
June 4, 1939.
Belgium and the Netherlands each took in a number of the refugees, most
of whom were later killed in the Holocaust. Other refugees were granted
asylum in Great Britain and survived.
(1889-1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933, and Führer
of Germany from 1934 until his death.
The Nazis used the term
“Final Solution” to refer to their plan to annihilate the Jewish
Himmler (1900-1945) was in charge of the Einsatzgruppen squads and the concentration
squads were mobile killing units staffed with German SS and police
personnel that killed over one million Jews through mass shootings.
concentration camp was Auschwitz in southern Poland. Rudolf Hoess was
the commandant of Auschwitz.
Auschwitz was actually
a complex consisting of three main camps and numerous satellite camps.
Many of the Jews were forced to perform slave labor at industrial
factories. Most prisoners at Auschwitz survived only a few weeks or
months. Those who were too ill or too weak to work were condemned to
death in the gas chambers.
Dr. Josef Mengele
(1911-1979) performed cruel medical experiments on human subjects at
Nazi Germany killed approximately six million European Jews in World
War II. This number included three million Polish Jews.
27, 1945, the Soviet army entered Auschwitz, Birkenau, and Monowitz and
liberated around 7,000 prisoners, most of whom were ill and dying.
Bloom - sheltered Jews in her home in Holland. She wrote her story in
the book "The Hiding Place."
Sendler - rescued more than 2400 Jewish children in Nazi-occupied
Trocme - made the town of Le Chambon a haven for persecuted Jews.
Varian Fry -
journalist who worked in Marseilles, France. He became known as the
"American Oskar Schindler."
& Martha Sharp - left Massachusetts and traveled to Prague,
Czechoslovakia in 1938 to save Jews.
Wallenberg - a Swedish Christian who rescued thousands of Hungarian
Jews from the Nazi death machine by issuing them protective passports
from the Swedish embassy.
Pope Pius XII
The role of Pope Pius
XII, who reigned from 1939 until his death in 1958, has long been
controversial. The Vatican has struggled to defend him over his silence
during the mass murder of 6 million Jews.
Critics have portrayed
him as an anti-Semite and Germanophile whose views were formed while
working in Germany before his election as Pope in 1939.
Pope Pius XII refused
pleas of Jews for help on the grounds of neutrality, while making
statements condemning injustices in general. Privately, he sheltered a
small number of Jews and spoke to a few select officials, encouraging
them to help the Jews.
The Vatican has always
insisted that the pontiff worked diplomatically to save Jews.
Rebirth of the Modern
State of Israel
Government of Israel proclaimed a new State of Israel at midnight on
May 14, 1948. On that same date, the United States, in the person of
President Truman (1884-1972), recognized the provisional Jewish
government as de facto authority of the Jewish state.
Weizmann (1874-1952) served as the first president of Israel. David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) served as the
Six-Day War, 1967
Israel fought against
the armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi
Arabia also contributed troops and arms to fight against Israel.
Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser led the Pan-Arab army.
The Jews reunited or
compacted Jerusalem on June 7, 1967, by capturing East Jerusalem.
Rabbi Shlomo Goren
(1917-1994) sounded a shofar at the Western Wall to commemorate the
reunification of Jerusalem .
 I was glad when
they said unto me, Let us go into the house of the LORD.
 Our feet shall stand within thy gates, O Jerusalem.
 Jerusalem is builded as a city that is compact together:
 Whither the tribes go up, the tribes of the LORD, unto the
testimony of Israel, to give thanks unto the name of the LORD.
 For there are set thrones of judgment, the thrones of the house of
 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: they shall prosper that love thee.
 Peace be within thy walls, and prosperity within thy palaces.
 For my brethren and companions' sakes, I will now say, Peace be
 Because of the house of the LORD our God I will seek thy good.
Aliyah, (pl. aliyot)
"ascension" or "going up" is the arrival of Jews as individuals or
groups, from exile or Diaspora to live in Eretz Yisrael - the Land of
Israel. Those who "go up" for this purpose are known as olim - a term
used in the Bible when the Children of Israel went up from Egypt (Gen.
50:14 and Num. 32:11) and - at a later period - for the exiles who
returned from captivity in Babylon (Ezra 2:1,59 and Neh. 5-6). The call
of Cyrus, King of Persia, in 538 B.C.E., - "Whosoever there is among
you of all His people, his God be with him, - let him go up." (Ezra
1:3, IIChron. 36:23) - has been used as a watchword for aliyah.
Jewish Community of
Ethiopian Jews refer to
themselves as Beta Israel, the house of Israel. They have lived in the
northern province of Gondar. Their neighbors, however, have called them
Falashas—the alien ones, the invaders.
There are four theories
for the origin of the Ethiopian Jews:
1) The Beta
Israel may be the lost Israelite tribe of Dan.
2) They may be
descendants of Menelik I, son of King Solomon and Queen Sheba.
3) They may be
descendants of Ethiopian Christians and pagans who converted to Judaism
4) They may be
descendants of Jews who fled Israel for Egypt after the destruction of
the First Temple in 586 BCE and eventually settled in Ethiopia.
Operation Moses began
on November 19, 1984 and ended six weeks later on January 5, 1985. As a
result, 8000 Ethiopian Jews arrived in Israel via Sudan.
Operation Joshua was
conducted in 1985, bringing 800 Ethiopian Jews to Israel.
More Ethiopian Jews
fled to Israel in Operation Solomon in 1990-91. A total of 14,324
Ethiopian Jews were rescued and resettled in Israel, a modern exodus.
government of Yitzhak Shamir authorized a special permit for the
Israeli airline, El Al, to fly on the Jewish Sabbath. On Friday, May
24, and continuing non-stop for 36 hours, a total of 34 El Al jumbo
jets and Hercules C-130s—seats removed to accommodate the maximum
number of Ethiopians—began a new chapter in the struggle for the
freedom of Ethiopian Jewry.
The Ethiopian Jews
boarded the aircraft at Addis Ababa International Airport.
The operation set a
world record for single-flight passenger load on May 24, 1991 when an
El Al 747 carried 1,087 passengers to Israel. Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Solomon
An estimated 36,000
Ethiopian Jews now live in Israel, although some sources give much
The Lemba People
The Lemba are a black,
southern Africa tribe of Jewish ancestry.
There are several oral
traditions regarding their origin.
According to one
version, a group of Jews left Jerusalem about 2500 years ago. They settled in Yemen and built a city called
Sena or Senna . The group then traveled to Africa and split into two
sections. One group settled in Ethiopia. The other group went further
south along the East Coast.
The second group
settled in what today is known as Tanzania and Kenya, where they built
a second city which was also called Senna. Here they prospered and
increased in numbers.
Another version states
that the Lemba are descendants of attendants of the Israelite King
Solomon who traveled to Ophir (Zimbabwe) in search of gold.
Some of the Lemba moved
to southern Africa. They live today in Malawi, Zimbabwe and the South
African region of Venda, where their total population is 70,000. They
speak the Bantu language.
The Lemba have
religious beliefs and practices similar to those in Judaism.
1. They are monotheists
and call their creator God, “Nwali.”
2. They consider one
day per week holy and praise “Nwali” on that day. This resembles the
3. They teach their
children to honour their parents.
4. They refrain from
eating Pork or other foods forbidden by the Old Testament. Their form
of slaughter resembles Jewish Shechita.
5. They practice male
6. They have strict
rules against marrying outside their tribe.
Furthermore, the Lemba
males posses the Priestly Cohanim gene on their Y chromosome (from work
done by Jenkins and Spurgle -Wits University)
The Bnei Menashe live
in North East India, in the land that lies between Myanmar (formerly
Burma) and Bangladesh.
The Bnei Menashe are
descendants of the Tribe of Menashe, or Manasseh, according to their
oral traditions. Their exile began when the Northern Kingdom of Israel
was taken captive in 721 B.C. They escaped from slavery in Assyria and
traveled to Media/Persia. They crossed the silk route finally ending up
The Bnei Menashe have
kept Jewish traditions, including observing Shabbat, keeping the laws
of Kosher, practicing circumcision on the eighth day of a baby boy's
life and observing Talmudic family purity.
One Bnei Menashe song,
which had been handed down and carried throughout their travels,
describes part of the Exodus from Egypt:
keep the Passover festival.
Because we crossed the Red Sea on the dry land.
At night we crossed with a fire.
day with a cloud.
Enemies pursued us with chariots.
And the sea swallowed them up.
them as food for the fish.
And when we were thirsty.
We received water from the rock.
In recent years, over
800 members of the Bnei Menashe community have made Aliyah, immigration
In addition to Bnei
Menashe, there are at least four other native Jewish or Israelite
communities in India:
The Cochin Jews
arrived in India 2,500 years ago and settled down in Cochin, Kerala as
The Baghdadi Jews
arrived in the city Mumbai from Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan, and Arab
countries about 250 years ago.
The Bene Israel
arrived in the state of Maharashtra 2,100 years ago. Most Bene Israel
have now emigrated to Israel.
The Bene Ephraim
(also called Telugu Jews) are a small group who
speak Telugu; their observance of Judaism dates to 1981.
Communities in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan
The Afridi Pashtun
tribe is identified with Ephraim. Pashtun tribes mainly live in the
highlands of Afghanistan and Pakistan, and they are divided into 60
tribes and 400 clans. The Afridi tribe is one of the largest (about
three million). For hundreds of years, Afridis have called themselves
Bani Israel (Pushto for the Hebrew B'nei Yisrael, meaning "Children of
Israel") and believe that they originated from the Ephraim tribe.
According to some
Jewish and European explorers from the Middle Ages until the present
day, the Afridi tribe originates from Ephraim, the Yusufzai tribe from
Joseph, the Rabbani from Reuben, the Levani from Levi, the Ashuri from
Some of the Israelites
may have traveled to Japan.
Joseph Eidelberg wrote
a book called The Biblical Hebrew Origin of the Japanese
Some Japanese words
appear to correspond with Hebrew words:
Daber: in Hebrew, to
Daberu: Japanese for chatting.
Goi: a non-Hebrew or foreigner.
Gai'Jeen: prefix for a foreigner, a non-Japanese.
Kor: cold in Hebrew.
Koru: to freeze in Japanese.
Knesset: Parliament in Hebrew.
Kensei: Constitutional government in Japanese
The common Japanese
surname, Sakai, is very close to what the Persians called the
Israelites: Sakka, for the sons of Isaac.
Furthermore, the name
'Samurai' resembles 'Samaria.'
Some sources claim that
the Mikado, the Japanese emperor, is a descendant of the Hebrew tribe
of Gad. 'Mikado' recalls the Hebrew word for 'his majesty the king,'
Other sources claim
that Reuben and half of Manasseh moved eastward, perhaps as far as
The Hata or Hada tribe
in Japan may have had Jewish origins. This tribe was active during the
Yamamoto era. Members of this tribe served as financial advisors to the
Yamato Court for several centuries. Some towns in Japan are named after
the tribe, such as Ohata, Yahata, and Hatano.
Also refer to:
Chiang Tribe in China may be a remnant of an
Israelite tribe. The Chiang live in the mountainous
area of northwest China, west of the Min River, near the border of
Tibet, in Szechuan. Their population is about 250 thousand people.
The Chiang Tribe's oral
tradition is that they are descendants of Abraham and of his twelve
They also have a
tradition that their ancestors migrated from the West after a journey
of three years and three months.
They believe in one God
whom they call Abachi meaning the father of heaven, or Mabichu, the
spirit of heaven, or also Tian, heaven.
The Chiang perform
ritual animal sacrifices similar to those of ancient Israel.
prophet Isaiah may have a vision of these people when he wrote
concerning the gathering of Israel:
shall come from far: and, lo, these from the north and from the west;
and these from the land of Sinim. (Isaiah 49:12)
Sinim is the Hebrew
word for China.